What’s Right and Wrong

5/4/21

May the 4th be with you!

Morality comes from reason not from “God”

Hypothetical imperatives and things you should do based on  things you want:

  • If you want a good grade – study
  • If you want money – get a job

Categorical Imperatives are things you must do no matter what you want and these things are based in rules.  These maxims are not a choice and must always be done no matter what.

The universalizability principle:

Behave in a way that you want to be treated no matter what

What goes around come around, Willie Nelson 

  • If I steal, it’s OK for other to steal from me
  • If I treat others with respect, others should treat me with respect

The Formula of Humanity:

Treat people as if they have their own thoughts, feelings and goals.  Keep this in mind and not see others as what they can give you.  Don’t allow yourself to be manipulated or manipulate others.  Be honest.

Let’s look at some ethical issues and look at how each of the three theories would respond to it.

A moral dilemma is a conflict in which a person must choose between two or more actions, all of which they have the ability to do. There are moral reasons for each choice. No matter which choice you make, someone will suffer or something bad will happen. In order to help you understand exactly what is meant by “moral dilemma” we have provided some examples, some of which are classic moral dilemmas.

The Unfaithful Friend

You go out with your husband for dinner at a new restaurant you have not frequented before. It is in a part of town you rarely visit. You are shocked to see your friend’s spouse having dinner with a very young, attractive person. From the way they are behaving, it is obvious they are more than friends. The couple finish their meal and leave without seeing you. They behave very affectionately on the way out the door. Do you:

  • Tell your friend, knowing you probably will not be believed and that it may ruin your friendship?
  • Say nothing about seeing the couple as it is none of your business; they may even have an open relationship?

Divine Command Theory (My religion said so)

Natural Law Theory (people desire what is best for them 1-7)

  1. Life – survival and life is valuable
  2. Reproduction – making more people
  3. Educate one’s offspring – child rearing and lessons
  4. Seek God – religion or spirituality
  5. Live in Society – people need social interaction 
  6. Avoid offense – getting along with others
  7. Shun ignorance – learning is a lifelong process

Categorical Imperatives (how do I want to be treated, “what is humane”)

A Difficult Choice

You and your family love the beach and decide to spend a weekend at an isolated beach cabin. Your teenage daughter often gets bored on your getaways, so you make plans to take your niece along. As soon as you arrive, a storm is looming on the horizon and the water looks rough. You tell the girls they can get ready to swim, but to come back and help unload the car. They are so excited, they do not pay attention to the last part of what you say and run down to the beach to swim. You do not realize they have done so until you hear your daughter scream. You realize they are both caught in a strong current and might be swept out to sea. You are a good swimmer and know you can save one of them. You have a difficult choice to make. Do you:

  • Save your niece first as she is a poor swimmer and will not be able to last as long as your daughter?
  • Save your daughter first, because, although she is a strong swimmer and may be able to last long enough for you to come back after saving your niece, you cannot stand the idea of losing her?

Divine Command Theory (My religion said so)

Natural Law Theory (people desire what is best for them 1-7)

  1. Life – survival and life is valuable
  2. Reproduction – making more people
  3. Educate one’s offspring – child rearing and lessons
  4. Seek God – religion or spirituality
  5. Live in Society – people need social interaction 
  6. Avoid offense – getting along with others
  7. Shun ignorance – learning is a lifelong process

Categorical Imperatives (how do I want to be treated, “what is humane”)

4/27/21

Today we will learn about natural law theory

This theory grew out of the Divine command theory and basically says, “God is awesome and he made you to be awesome”

People desire what is best for them

  1. Life – survival and life is valuable
  2. Reproduction – making more people
  3. Educate one’s offspring – child rearing and lessons
  4. Seek God – religion or spirituality
  5. Live in Society – people need social interaction 
  6. Avoid offense – getting along with others
  7. Shun ignorance – learning is a lifelong process

Each of these points have  something you shouldn’t do and something you should do.  Let’s talk about these.

Problems with the theory or why people don’t follow all the parts:

  • Ignorance
  • Emotions
  • Is-ought problem, if it “is” that means it “ought” (or should be)

4/20/21

The oldest method of deciding what is wrong or right is religious spiritual views on how people should behave.  There have been many religions over human history and sometimes they are similar or very different in their beliefs.  

Irreligion, or nonreligion, is the absence or rejection of religion, or indifference to it. According to the Pew Research Center’s 2012 global study of 230 countries and territories, 16% of the world’s population is not affiliated with any religion.

 

 

 

 

 

Here is our first theory of moral reasoning:

Divine Command Theory – The belief that what’s moral and what’s immoral is commanded by the divine (God or God’s or Goddesses)

Divine command theory addresses many of our biggest questions about right and wrong, which is why its the ethical theory of choice for much of the world.

Dilema

  1. Are right actions right because God commands them?
  2. Are right actions commanded by God because they are right?

Who wrote religious texts?

Do people hallucinate things that are not there?

4/13/21

Metaethics – studies the foundations of morality itself

  • Metaethical views
  • Intent – why you do something
  • Grounding Problem – search for a foundation for our moral beliefs

Moral Realism – belief that there are moral facts that apply to all situations

Moral Relativism – 

Cultural Relativism people’s moral beliefs differ from culture to culture

Moral Antirealism – the belief that there are no moral facts

Universal Beliefs:

Killing of Things

Eating Meat, eating plants, death penalty, war, self defense, honor killings, infanticide, too many animals, mercy killings, environmental pollution/pesticides, parasites, rodents/pests

4/6/21

Why use values to make desicions?

Let’s do another values assessment and then talk about how your values can drive your decision making.

Go to this site and take the online quiz:

https://personalvalu.es/

What is your code of honor?  

3/30/21

Values — an individual’s accepted standards of right or wrong. 

Morals — society’s standards of right and wrong, very similar to ethics.

Ethics — a structured system of principles that govern appropriate conduct for a group, including activities such as professional ethics, compassion, commitment, cooperation.

values-exercise

1. Determine your core values. From the list below, choose and write down every core value that resonates with you. Do not overthink your selections. As you read through the list, simply write down the words that feel like a core value to you personally. If you think of a value you possess that is not on the list, be sure to write it down as well.

Abundance Acceptance Accountability Achievement Advancement Adventure Advocacy Ambition Appreciation Attractiveness Autonomy Balance

Being the Best Benevolence Boldness Brilliance

Calmness Caring Challenge Charity Cheerfulness Cleverness Community Commitment Compassion Cooperation Collaboration Consistency Contribution Creativity Credibility Curiosity

Daring Decisiveness Dedication Dependability Diversity

Empathy Encouragement Enthusiasm Ethics Excellence Expressiveness Fairness

Family Friendships Flexibility Freedom Fun

Generosity Grace Growth

Flexibility

Happiness Health Honesty Humility Humor

Inclusiveness Independence Individuality Innovation Inspiration Intelligence Intuition

Joy

Kindness Knowledge

Leadership Learning Love Loyalty

Making a Difference Mindfulness Motivation

Optimism Open-Mindedness Originality

Passion Performance Personal Development Proactive Professionalism

Quality

Recognition Risk Taking

Safety Security Service Spirituality Stability

Peace Perfection Playfulness Popularity Power Preparedness Proactivity Professionalism Punctuality

Recognition Relationships Reliability Resilience Resourcefulness Responsibility Responsiveness

Security Self-Control Selflessness Simplicity Stability Success

Teamwork Thankfulness Thoughtfulness Traditionalism Trustworthiness

Understanding Uniqueness Usefulness

Versatility Vision

Warmth Wealth Well-Being Wisdom

Zeal

2. Group all similar values together from the list of values you just created. Group them in a way that makes sense to you, personally. Create a maximum of five groupings. If you have more than five groupings, drop those least important. See the
example below.

Abundance Growth Wealth Security Freedom Independence Flexibility Peace

Acceptance Compassion Inclusiveness Intuition Kindness Love

Making a Difference Open-Mindedness Trustworthiness Relationships

Appreciation Encouragement Thankfulness Thoughtfulness Mindfulness

Balance Health Personal Development Spirituality Well-being

Cheerfulness Fun Happiness Humor Inspiration Joy Optimism Playfulness

3. Choose one word within each grouping that best represents the label for the entire group. Again, do not overthink your labels. There are no right or wrong answers. You are defining the answer that is right for you. See the example below – the label chosen for the grouping is bolded.

Abundance Growth Wealth Security Freedom Independence Flexibility Peace

Acceptance Compassion Inclusiveness Intuition Kindness Love Making a Difference

Open-Mindedness Trustworthiness Relationships

Appreciation Encouragement Thankfulness Thoughtfulness Mindfulness

Balance Health Personal Development Spirituality Well-being

Cheerfulness Fun Happiness Humor Inspiration Joy Optimism Playfulness

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